Orsolya Gabriella Gregán



Economic development is associated with innovation, which is why the innovation management practices and systems of the universities became essential. This research aimed to benchmark five Romanian and Hungarian universities close to the Romanian-Hungarian border to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches.The benchmarking included economic data and indicators connected to the innovation of the five biggest universities along the border regions. The analysis was performed using data derived from The Higher Education Word Ranking and Eurostat. For the qualitative part, the web pages of the universities were analyzed.
The research found that although the universities on the Hungarian side of the border seem more developed, regional economic development is stronger and more natural on the Romanian side of the border. According to the literature, it is clear that geographical factors play an important role in the development of innovation systems. The closing part of this paper makes an attempt to list the possible causes of the results.


economic development; university; Romania, Hungary; cross-border; innovation

Full Text:



Bedő, Z., Erdős, K., & Pittaway, L. (2020). University-centred entrepreneurial ecosystems in resource-constrained contexts. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development,

Bennett, D., Yábar, D. P., & Saura, J. R. (2017). University incubators may be socially valuable, but how effective are they? A case study on business incubators at universities. Entrepreneurial universities (pp. 165-177). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47949-1_11

Bramwell, A., & Wolfe, D. A. (2008). Universities and regional economic development: The entrepreneurial university of waterloo. Research Policy, 37(8), 1175-1187. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2008.04.016

Carree, M., Della Malva, A., & Santarelli, E. (2014). The contribution of universities to growth: Empirical evidence for italy. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 393-414.

Chrisman, J. J., Hynes, T., & Fraser, S. (1995). Faculty entrepreneurship and economic development: The case of the university of calgary. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(4), 267-281.

Compagnucci, L., & Spigarelli, F. (2020). The third mission of the university: A systematic literature review on potentials and constraints. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 161, 120284. doi:

Cooke, P. (1992). Regional innovation systems: Competitive regulation in the new europe. Geoforum, 23(3), 365-382. doi:10.1016/0016-7185(92)90048-9

Del Giudice, M., Nicotra, M., Romano, M., & Schillaci, C. E. (2017). Entrepreneurial performance of principal investigators and country culture: Relations and influences. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(2), 320-337. doi:10.1007/s10961-016-9499-y

Diaconu, M., & Dutu, A. (2015). The role of the modern university in supporting the entrepreneurial ecosystem. European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 7(1), 11-24.

Dowrick, S., Dunlop, Y., & Quiggin, J. (2003). Social indicators and comparisons of living standards. Journal of Development Economics, 70(2), 501-529. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(02)00107-4

European Commission. (2022a). European innovation scorecard. Retrieved from

European Commission. (2022b). A new european innovation Agenda COM(2022) 332 final. Brussels: European Commission.

European Commission. (2023). EUROSTAT data set. Retrieved from

European University Association. (2023). EUA innovation

agenda 2026 . (). Retrieved from

Goldstein, H. A. (1990). Estimating the regional economic impact of universities: An application of input-output analysis. Planning for Higher Education, 18(1), 51-64.

Goldstein, H., & Drucker, J. (2006). The economic development impacts of universities on regions: Do size and distance matter? Economic Development Quarterly, 20(1), 22-43. doi:

Gubitta, P., Tognazzo, A., & Destro, F. (2015). Signaling in academic ventures: The role of technology transfer offices and university funds. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 41(2), 368-393. doi:10.1007/s10961-015-9398-7

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., Cunningham, J., & Organ, D. (2014). Entrepreneurial universities in two european regions: A case study comparison. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 415-434. doi:10.1007/s10961-012-9287-2

Guerrero, M., Cunningham, J. A., & Urbano, D. (2015). Economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities: An exploratory study of the united kingdom. Research Policy, 44(3), 748-764.

Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2012). The development of an entrepreneurial university. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 43-74. doi:10.1007/s10961-010-9171-x

Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2019). Effectiveness of technology transfer policies and legislation in fostering entrepreneurial innovations across continents: An overview. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 44(5), 1347-1366. doi:10.1007/s10961-019-09736-x

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Fayolle, A. (2016). Entrepreneurial activity and regional competitiveness: Evidence from european entrepreneurial universities. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 41(1), 105-131. doi:10.1007/s10961-014-9377-4

Huberman, A. M. (1983). Improving social practice through the utilization of university-based knowledge. Higher Education, 12(3), 257-272. doi:

Huynh, T. (2019). What makes external financial supporters engage in university spin-off seed investments: Entrepreneurs’capabilities or social networks? International Journal of Innovation Management, 23(02), 1950010. doi:

Iacobucci, D., & Micozzi, A. (2012). Entrepreneurship education in italian universities: Trend, situation and opportunities. Education and Training, 54(8), 673-696. doi:10.1108/00400911211274828

Leydesdorff, L., & Etzkowitz, H. (1996). Emergence of a triple helix of university—industry—government relations. Science & Public Policy, 23(5), 279-286. doi:10.1093/spp/23.5.279

Mariani, G., Carlesi, A., & Scarfò, A. A. (2018). Academic spinoffs as a value driver for intellectual capital: The case of the university of pisa. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 19(1), 202-226. doi:10.1108/JIC-03-2017-0050

Mesny, A., Pinget, N., & Mailhot, C. (2016). The commercialization of academic outputs in the administrative sciences: A multiple-case study in a university-based business school: The commercialization of academic outputs. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 33(4), 290-303. doi:10.1002/cjas.1331

Miller, K., Alexander, A., Cunningham, J. A., & Albats, E. (2018). Entrepreneurial academics and academic entrepreneurs: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Technology Management, 77(1-3), 9-37. doi:

O'Shea, R. P., Allen, T. J., Morse, K. P., O'Gorman, C., & Roche, F. (2007). Delineating the anatomy of an entrepreneurial university: The massachusetts institute of technology experience. R & D Management, 37(1), 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9310.2007.00454.x

Pinheiro, R., Langa, P. V., & Pausits, A. (2015). One and two equals three? the third mission of higher education institutions. European Journal of Higher Education, 5(3), 233-249. doi:10.1080/21568235.2015.1044552

Porter, M. E. (1998). Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 90. Retrieved from

Rector, A. M., & Thursby, M. C. (2016). Licensing inventions from entrepreneurial universities: The context of bayh-dole. Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth, 26, 361-376. doi:10.1108/S1048-473620160000026013

Rolfo, S., & Finardi, U. (2014). University third mission in italy: Organization, faculty attitude and academic specialization. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 472-486. doi:10.1007/s10961-012-9284-5

Russo, A. P., van den Berg, L., & Lavanga, M. (2007). Toward a sustainable relationship between city and university: A stakeholdership approach. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(2), 199-216.

Secundo, G., De Beer, C., Fai, F. M., & Schutte, C. (2019). Increasing university entrepreneurialism: Qualitative insights from the technology transfer office. Measuring Business Excellence, 23(3), 253-268. doi:10.1108/MBE-02-2019-0015

Secundo, G., De Beer, C., Schutte, C. S., & Passiante, G. (2017). Mobilising intellectual capital to improve european universities’ competitiveness: The technology transfer offices’ role. Journal of Intellectual Capital,

Shane, S. A. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation Edward Elgar Publishing.

Siegel, D. S., & Wessner, C. (2012). Universities and the success of entrepreneurial ventures: Evidence from the small business innovation research program. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(4), 404-415. doi:10.1007/s10961-010-9186-3

Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70(1), 65-94. doi:10.2307/1884513

Stagars, M. (2014). University startups and spin-offs: Guide for entrepreneurs in academia (1st ed.) Springer. doi:

The Higher Education. (2023). World ranking data set. Retrieved from

Wadhwani, R. D., Galvez-Behar, G., Mercelis, J., & Guagnini, A. (2017). Academic entrepreneurship and institutional change in historical perspective. Management & Organizational History : M&OH, 12(3), 175-198. doi:10.1080/17449359.2017.1359903

Wallin, E. (2007). Place-centric and future-oriented learning in the local village context Routledge.

Wright, M. (2007). Academic entrepreneurship in europe Edward Elgar Publishing.

ISSN: 2344-1321 (online)